The list of drug candidates appeared in a study published on the web site bioRxiv.
The researchers have submitted the paper to a journal for publication. To come up with the list, hundreds of researchers embarked on an unusual study of the genes of the coronavirus, also called SARS-CoV The cell begins to produce viral proteins, which are used to produce millions of new viruses.
Each of those viral proteins must be able to latch onto the necessary human proteins for the process to work. The researchers found human proteins targeted by the coronavirus. Some viral proteins seemed to target just one human protein; other viral proteins are capable of targeting a dozen human cellular proteins. The researchers sought drugs that also latch onto the human proteins that the coronavirus seems to need to enter and replicate in human cells. On the list were such unexpected candidates as haloperidol, used to treat schizophrenia, and metformin, taken by people with Type 2 diabetes.
The investigators also found candidates among compounds that are now in clinical trials or that are the subject of early research. Intriguingly, some of the possible treatments are drugs used to attack parasites. And the list includes antibiotics that kill bacteria by gumming up the cellular machinery they use to build proteins. But some of those drugs also attach to human proteins. The new study raises the possibility that this side effect might turn out to be an antiviral treatment.
Therapeutic Options for COVID Patients | CDC
One drug on the list, chloroquine, kills the single-celled parasite that causes malaria. Scientists have long known that it can also attach to a human cellular protein called the sigma-1 receptor. And that receptor is also the target of the virus. Chloroquine has been much in the news this past week, thanks to speculation about its use against the coronavirus — some of which was repeated by President Trump at a news briefing at the White House on Friday.
Only well-run trials could establish whether chloroquine was safe and effective against the coronavirus , Dr. McLaughlin , CNN. CNN As the world's heath experts race to find treatments -- and eventually, a cure -- for the novel coronavirus , two drugs have jumped to the front of the conversation: chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. More Videos Surgeon general's stark warning: It's going to get bad President Donald Trump has called the drugs, which are used to treat malaria and other conditions, game changers, and a rush to procure the pharmaceuticals spurred several US states to take measures to prevent shortages amid the Covid pandemic.
Your coronavirus questions answered. New York moved to begin trials Tuesday, procuring 70, doses of hydroxychloroquine and , doses of chloroquine, Gov.
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Andrew Cuomo said. In addition, Bayer, the drug maker, has donated 3 million doses of Resochin, its brand name for chloroquine, to the federal government.
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Perhaps demonstrating why health officials are urging caution -- saying chloroquine requires further clinical study and might not be the panacea it's billed to be -- officials in Nigeria's Lagos state have reported three overdoses in the days since the drug entered the conversation surrounding the pandemic. In Arizona, a man died after reportedly taking a nonmedical form of chloroquine used to fight parasites in aquariums. Chloroquine is used to treat malaria, as well as in chemoprophylaxis, which is the administering of drugs to prevent the development of disease, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Novartis donates malaria drug for COVID-19 clinical trials
Since , it has not been recommended for use in severe malaria because of problems with resistance, particularly in the Oceania region, according to the World Health Organization. WHO includes it on its list of "essential medicines," meaning it should be kept affordable and accessible at all times.
Julie Nusbaum, a rheumatologist at NYU Winthrop Hospital, said he patients with autoimmune diseases like lupus are advised to get an annual eye exam. She suggested that people with retinal disease talk to their ophthalmologist before taking the medication for COVID, although she was less concerned with short term use.
It is receiving 10, doses of Zithromax, 70, doses of hydroxychloroquine, and , doses of chloroquine, for use in wide-scale studies in treating patients here. The Arizona man who died, and his wife who was hospitalized, were healthy and in their 60s when they poured a fish tank cleaner into soda after seeing it contained the ingredient chloroquine phosphate.
The chloroquine phosphate used to kill aquatic parasites is formulated differently than the medicinal version and is toxic to humans. Nusbaum said she would ask other doctors not to prescribe the drug to the general community where a patient does not already have COVID She said its use as a prophylaxis or preventive drug, has not been proved to be effective. Matt Davies Columnists Letters to the editor Submit your letter. By Carol Polsky carol.